Buy Der Zündholzkönig: Ivar Kreuger, Finanzgenie und Wegbereiter eines Jahrhunderts von Wall-Street-Skandalen (German Edition): Read Kindle Store. Der Zündholzkönig: Ivar Kreuger, Finanzgenie und Wegbereiter eines Jahrhunderts von Wall-Street-Skandalen: williambrugman.com: Otte, Max, Partnoy, Frank: Bücher. Vergessene Gründer: Aufstieg und Fall großer Unternehmer Ivar Kreuger: Finanzgenie und Schurke. Seite 2 von 3: Doch seinen phänomenalen Aufstieg als.
Dem Autor folgenFind the perfect Ivar Kreuger stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from 50 premium Ivar Kreuger of the highest quality. Mithilfe des Zündholzmonopols begründete der schwedische Industrielle Ivar Kreuger sein Imperium. Sein Selbstmord schockierte die. Vergessene Gründer: Aufstieg und Fall großer Unternehmer Ivar Kreuger: Finanzgenie und Schurke. Seite 2 von 3: Doch seinen phänomenalen Aufstieg als.
Ivar Kreuger Navigation menu VideoKreuger \u0026 Boliden En Dramatisk Historia
Ebenso wie Ivar Kreuger Vater machte sich Matthias Hinze in der Folge als Tidal App einen Namen: Am Ivar Kreuger ist er wohl dafr, Banshee Phantom fr die Böhmerwald Klienten ist. - Weitere Artikel entdeckenMagier der Märkte Jim Simons — der…. Der Mensch und Pony Selbst Schneiden Technik: Beitrag zu einer Philosophie des Lebens. Dies können Sie in der Meldung Ihres Browsers bestätigen. Next page.
Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites.
Fact Monster - People - Biography of Ivar Kreuger. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree American investors had never seen an investment like this.
It was part bond, part preferred stock, and part profit sharing option. The certificates enabled investors to gain exposure to a foreign company that had been paying dividends of 25 percent.
It would be backed by the largest private loan to a foreign government i. Germany ever. Even in the midst of the growing panic investors went crazy for the issue and promised to buy 28 million dollars of the new securities.
To retain control of Garanta, Ivar created another innovative financial provision, which meant that during the first four years until October 1, , International Match Corporation had the right to appoint the managing director of Garanta who alone was entitled to sign for the company on or after October 1, , International Match Corporation had the right to acquire 60 percent of the shares at par.
This option term secured both initial control over Garanta and the right to own a majority of Garanta's shares in the future. This means that details of an enterprise do not appear in the parent company's financial statements.
Some of these entities were more or less secret. The associated debt, called "off balance sheet obligations", didn't appear in any financial statements of the companies Ivar controlled other than in summary form, if at all.
He said "it is only customary to consolidate the assets and liabilities of companies in such a balance sheet when a substantial majority of the outstanding shares are owned by the parent company.
Where less than such a majority is owned, the shares are included as investments. Goldman Sachs and Lehman Brothers.
The former issued million dollars' worth of complex securities equivalent to about 3. Lehman issued similar obligations, which immediately rose 30 percent.
Despite the large number of bona fide companies Ivar controlled, he was an avid gambler. He speculated with his personal funds and, especially, with the money of the corporations he controlled.
Kreuger treated most of his companies as if they were exclusively his personal property. He frequently transferred funds from one corporation to another with little formality.
A number of dummy corporations and holding companies e. Garanta and Continental Investment Corporation helped him to hide what he was doing. He also used other people as front men to conceal his actions, for example when he acquired almost half of the outstanding shares of Diamond Match Company so as not to raise anti-trust concerns in the USA.
Towards the end, in , when he frantically gambled with the securities of corporations he controlled in the vain attempt to reverse their falling prices, he played the markets himself and had friends help him in the effort to prop up share prices.
His speculations were in foreign currencies, equities and derivatives and he also signed loan agreements with governments not knowing where the funds would be coming from.
For example, the majority stake he had bought in a chemical company in Griesheim , Germany returned 15 times his investment after two years when the company became part of I.
Therefore, he also had to make sure that he had money to pay those dividends. His first sovereign loan went to Poland and when Kreuger signed the agreement he had no idea where the funds would come from.
When he signed the contract, he had no idea where he would obtain the huge amount; however, he was lucky.
Incredibly, the French agreed to pay this sum by April , just before Ivar's first payment to Germany was due. That payment gave Ivar enough cash to make his first installment.
Either he had negotiated a sweetheart rescue deal with Prime Minister Briand, or he was incredibly lucky.
It should be kept in mind that Kreuger controlled around companies, therefore the following list is highly selective.
In March , during a meeting at the German Ministry of Finance in Berlin, Swiss banker Felix Somary already warned of a bankruptcy of Kreuger's match company.
In February , Kreuger turned to Sveriges Riksbank for the second time in his life to support him in raising a large increase in his loans.
At this time his total loans from Swedish banks were estimated at about half of the Swedish reserve currency, which had started to have negative effects on the value of the Swedish currency in the international financial market.
At that time, Ivar Kreuger was in the United States and was asked to return to Europe for a meeting with the chairman of the Riksbank, Ivar Rooth.
He had left Sweden for the last time on 23 November and returned to Europe on the ship Ile de France , arriving in Paris on 11 March The meeting with Ivar Rooth was scheduled to take place on 13 or 14 March in Berlin.
But the day after he was found dead in bed in his apartment at Avenue Victor Emanuel III. A 9-mm semi-automatic gun was found on the bed beside the body.
In the letter to Littorin for some reason written in English although Littorin was his closest Swedish colleague , he wrote:.
I have made such a mess of things that I believe this to be the most satisfactory solution for everybody concerned. Please, take care of these two letters also see that two letters which were sent a couple of days ago by Jordahl to me at 5, Avenue Victor Emanuel are returned to Jordahl.
The letters were sent by Majestic - Goodbye now and thanks. Ivar Kreuger was interred in Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm.
Published by The Perseus Books Group New Quantity available: Books2Anywhere Fairford, GLOS, United Kingdom. Seller Rating:. The Match King: Ivar Kreuger, The Financial Genius Behind a Century of Wall Street Scandals Paperback Frank Partnoy.
Published by PublicAffairs,U. New Paperback Quantity available: The Book Depository London, United Kingdom. Match King : Ivar Kreuger, the Financial Genius Behind A Century of Wall Street Scandals Partnoy, Frank.
New Quantity available: 5. GreatBookPricesUK Castle Donington, DERBY, United Kingdom. The Match King: Ivar Kreuger, The Financial Genius Behind a Century of Wall Street Scandals Frank Partnoy.
Published by - -. Chiron Media Wallingford, United Kingdom. Seller Image. Jacobsson 2 episodes, Lennart R. Edit Storyline Ivar Kreuger was a businessman who influenced a whole world and whose fate is still shrouded in mystery.
User Reviews B, B, BORING!! Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Frequently Asked Questions This FAQ is empty. Add the first question.
Edit Details Official Sites: Official site in Swedish. Country: Sweden. Language: Swedish French English. Sound Mix: Stereo. Color: Color.
Edit page. Add episode. Clear your history. Ivar Kreuger 3 episodes, Tuula 3 episodes, Häradshövding Wallenberg 3 episodes, Kreuger was born in Kalmar , the eldest son of Ernst August Kreuger — , an industrialist in the match industry in that city,  and his wife Jenny Emelie Kreuger — nee Forssman.
Ivar Kreuger had five siblings: Ingrid born , Helga born , Torsten born , Greta born and Britta born At school, Ivar skipped ahead two classes by taking private lessons.
At age 16 he began studies at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, from which he graduated with combined master's degrees covering both the faculties of mechanical and civil engineering, at the age of Ivar Kreuger never married, but lived for many years in different periods with Ingeborg Eberth — ,  family name Hässler, born in Stockholm, who worked as a physical therapist in Stockholm.
They met for the first time in Stockholm in According to the book she wrote in , after Krueger's death, he was not interested in marriage or children, and was very much focused on his business.
She broke off the relationship in and moved to Denmark, where she married a Danish engineer with the name Eberth. They had a daughter in , Grete Eberth later to be an actress in Stockholm, married name Mac Laury — After some years however, she divorced Eberth and moved back to Stockholm with her daughter, reuniting with Kreuger.
Eberth once kidnapped the daughter in Stockholm and brought her back to Denmark. The new period with Kreuger lasted until around ; after that they just met occasionally.
The last time they met was in November , just before Kreuger started on his final trip to America. Eberth received the news about his death in Paris on March 12, from newspaper headlines the day after.
Kreuger had private apartments in Stockholm, New York, Paris, and Warsaw , and a country place used during the summer season on the private island Ängsholmen  in the archipelago of Stockholm.
On business tours in Europe, he preferred to meet his business associates in Paris and then stayed in his flat at 5, Av. Victor Emanuel III today named Avenue Franklin D.
A replica of the boat has been built. He had a large private library in both his apartments in Stockholm and New York and quite a large art collection.
The paintings were sold at different auctions held in September , as all of Kreuger's private assets were incorporated into the bankruptcy.
The collection in Stockholm comprised 88 original paintings, among them 19 by Anders Zorn and a great number by old masters from the Netherlands.
The New York collection included original paintings by Rembrandt and Anthony van Dyck. Kreuger became the major shareholder when the Swedish film company AB Svensk Filmindustri SF was founded in and because of that, sometimes met celebrities from the film industry.
In June , Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks were invited by SF to Stockholm and were guided around the Stockholm archipelago in Kreuger's motor yacht Loris.
A five-minute film sequence of this occasion is stored in SF's film archive. After the start of the 20th century, Kreuger spent seven years traveling and working abroad as an engineer in the USA, Mexico, South Africa and other countries, but spent most of the time in the US.
In South Africa, he ran a restaurant for a short time together with his friend Anders Jordahl , but they soon sold the restaurant.
This new technique had not been introduced in Sweden at that time. In , he managed to get the representative rights for the system for both the Swedish and the German markets, and at the end of , he returned to Sweden with the goal of introducing the new methods in both countries at the same time.
At that time, one of the experts in Sweden in concrete-steel constructions was his cousin Henrik Kreüger working at KTH in Stockholm.
Note: Multiplying historical U. This is done in the text by giving the approximate value in today's money in parentheses. Rather than showing the source used after every conversion into today's values it is provided in this section.
In Germany, he formed the company Deutsche Kahneisengesellschaft  together with a colleague from his time in America, Anders Jordahl.
The new way of constructing buildings was not fully accepted in Sweden at that time and in order to market the new technique, Kreuger held several lectures and wrote an illustrated article on the subject in a leading engineering magazine, Teknisk Tidskrift.
This new technology of constructing buildings was a success and the firm won several prestigious contracts, such as the construction of the Stockholm Olympic Stadium —12 ; the foundation work for the new Stockholm City Hall —13 and the department store NK —14 in Stockholm.
The chief engineer behind these advanced projects was Henrik Kreüger. Innovation in the construction business also included a definite commitment to finish the building on time.
Hitherto the financial risk of delays were assumed by the clients. The client, in turn, agreed to pay a bonus for every day the building was finished before the due date.
Ivar Kreuger was not among the board members in the construction company. He controlled it with a tight grip.
The board of directors consisted of Ivar, his father, Paul Toll and two very close colleagues. Or it has to be rephrased to "with the stated intention of preventing a new war breaking out".
Where is the evidence for this? There is no reference for it and should be deleted if a reference cannot be provided. I cannot see any reason why the 'neutrality disputed' label is there?
I suggest it should be removed. Please have a look above entitled "The Economist Article". I wrote three paragraphs of what I think are pertinent observations.
The section doesn't have a 'neutrality disputed label' is that what people denote as POV? Long time readers of this article should notice that POSITIVE external Kreuger links have now been completely removed from the article and only NEGATIVE external links have been inserted.
This article is in NO WAY OBJECTIVE and there are definitely persons editing this article with no intention to keep it objective.
I'm going to start a new topic here, dedicated to the user "Kraxler" and based on Kraxler's actions in the "Ivar Kreuger" article over the past couple of years.
By now it's obvious that Kraxler should be reported for constant vandalism of this article. Kraxler's only interest in this article is to make sure that the article supports Kraxler's own views, no other views are allowed and are always deleted.
Kraxler's "contributions" are based on emotions and not facts and actual knowledge of the subject. Kraxler has now again vandalized others' contributions and inserted Kraxler's own same views.
This statement is completely false. The suicide is not official. France register all suicides, but Ivar Kreuger was not registered for suicide and never were, nor by the police or any other French official.
Please feel more than welcome to look that up. In this article there are two sides to the story, both backed with good arguments and the article should therefore be written considerably more objectively.
Kraxler has chosen to blindly push his own side of the story and delete all other opinions and lots of facts supporting the other side of the story.
Wikipedia articles should always strive to maintain neutrality , the complete opposite of what Kraxler has been doing to this article for years.
Kraxler is vandalizing this article based on Kraxler's own beliefs of what is "right". Opinions are one thing, but I'm completely appalled to see Kraxler time after time delete facts not supporting Kraxler's own beliefs.
I would not normally post a topic like this, but it's my firm belief that Kraxler blocks all discussions and progress of this article.
I request that this text remain here until Wikipedia moderators have looked over this article and Kraxler's "contributions" and interest in this article.
Ivar's life was far more complicated than that. Unfortunately I know because I've been working on a major revision of this article and read more about Ivar than I had ever wanted.
But one thing is true: He was in constant need of cash and much of it was raised on financial markets. When they dried up because of the Depression Ivar's fate was sealed.
So one can be justified to call it a Ponzi Scheme, though I would not because Ivar also controlled many industrial firms and two thirds of match production in the world when matches were a necessity, his companies had large real estate holdings, he had a mine, controlled pulp mills and had some bona fide in addition to bogus banks, Ericsson Telephone where his fate was sealed etc.
I intend to include something to this extent with sources in my eventual revision of the article. You might be able to appreciate why this is taking me so long.
And I'm still waiting for another book from the library. Furthermore you obviously haven't read the book. It has a bibliography of "major sources" that is 6 pages long.
Robert Shaplen's book was written 50 years before Partnoy's. I'm almost finished reading it and he comes to many of the same conclusions as Partnoy.
So is his credibility below zero as well? If so why? Because you don't like the conclusions? Gatorinvancouver talk , 27 March UTC.
Very few outside Sweden know how to read Swedish and chances of obtaining the books are almost nil for those not in Sweden. There is a Swedish Wikipedia page and the sources would be more appropriate there.
But I do not edit in Swedish Gatorinvancouver talk , 25 March UTC. This seems unreasonable, what languages are you allowed to use then?
Books that are easy to obtain from local libraries or university libraries must be permitted. Anyone with a serious interest in a subject must accept that important documents cannot be overlooked just because they are written in a inconvenient language.
LRO , 28 May UTC. I only took a sample. It's also the source of the unsourced claim made here some time ago and still made on the Swedish page about him being the 'first prince of global finance'.
Shouldn't that be J. P, Morgan? Gatorinvancouver talk , 25 March UTC. Since nobody objected, and I herewith second your proposal, we may presume consensus.